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P.O. Box 75
Apalachicola, Florida 32329

Reprinted by Permission

Chapter 1 - The Indians
Chapter 2 - The Spanish
Chapter 3 - The English
Chapter 4 - Scottish Traders
Chapter 5 - The United States
Chapter 6 - The Settlements
Chapter 7 - Apalachicola
Chapter 8 - The Civil War
Chapter 9 - Cypress
Chapter 10 - World War II
Chapter 11 - Seafood
Selected Bibliography
Chapter 6 - The Settlements

The period 1814-1818 had been costly for Forbes and Company, and it passed into the hands of Colin Mitchel of Havana, Cuba, and others. They reorganized it, after the Forbes Spanish land grant was declared legal in 1835, as the Apalachicola Land Company. The Indians no longer occupied the area of Apalachicola Bay nor the ceded lands of the Forbes purchase. Some seventy chiefs met at Moultrie Creek near St. Augustine and, having elected Neo Mathia their spokesman, negotiated a treaty with the commissioners from the U. S. War Department and Governor William Duval of Florida. Small reservations were given to six chiefs near the Apalachicola River. In 1833, under pressure from settlers, attacks by other Indians, floods and disease, and with their annuity cancelled and no government protection, they sold these reservations to Florida and agreed to leave. They were gone by 1838. In 1802, the U. S. promised the State of Georgia to relocate the Indians in that state elsewhere within a reasonable time. The Treaty of Fort Jackson opened for settlement all lands in the southern part of the state. Two additional grants in 1818 and the Treaty of Indian Springs in 1821 left the Creeks concentrated between the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers. At Broken Arrow in 1824, the Lower Creeks seemed willing to move west of the Mississippi, but the Upper Creeks did not want to consider another land grant. At Indian Springs in 1825, the Lower Creeks named William McIntosh their spokesman and sold their land for five million dollars and an equal area west of the Mississippi. The Lower Creeks later objected, and William McIntosh was subsequently killed. The Council for the entire Creek Nation repudiated this treaty. The Lower Creeks under Chilly McIntosh, son of the murdered chief, went to Washington, as did a delegation from the Upper Creeks. The Treaty of Washington ( 1827) resulted. By this treaty, the Creeks in Georgia were moved west of the Mississippi. In Alabama, farmers encroached on Creek territory, and the Treaty of Cusseta ( 1832) resulted. Land was to be obtained by the Indians, sold, and the Indians were then to move west. Intruders flooded the area, and at one point Francis Scott Key was sent to Alabama to stop encroachments. Frauds were widespread, however, and speculators started an Indian war to prevent an investigation. The Creek War (1836-1837) resulted in the Creeks moving west. General Winfield Scott, from the Seminole Wars, his force augmented by some 1800 Creeks, fought some 1500 hostiles. In 1837, some Creeks paid their debts by joining the U. S. forces in the Florida wars. While there were some remaining incidents, the Indians were gone by 1843. The departure of the Indians saw the farmers and the planters move in. On the river, Columbus, Georgia, was started in 1828, Eufaula in 1833 and Albany by 1836.

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